Pest Away Tips

7 Types of Gnats and How to Get Rid of Them

Gnats may seem like tiny, harmless creatures, but they can be quite the nuisance. They can infest our homes and make our lives miserable.

They can also transmit bacteria and diseases. There are different types of gnats, each with unique characteristics and behaviors.

This article aims to educate readers about the common types of gnats and how to identify them.

Fungus or Houseplant Gnats

Winter gnats, also known as fungus gnats or houseplant gnats, are commonly found in indoor plants, especially during the winter season. They have grayish-black bodies and transparent wings.

They are leggy and have elongated antennae. Fungus gnats thrive in moist environments and feed on fungi and decaying organic matter.

They can cause damage to plant roots if they lay their eggs in the potting mix. To identify a fungus gnat infestation, check for small, black flies hovering around your plants or crawling on the soil surface.

Drain Flies

Drain flies, also called moth flies or sewer gnats, are small flies that breed in drains, septic tanks, and sewage systems. They have gray or brown bodies and light-colored wings.

Drain flies are carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which they spread through their breeding sites. To identify a drain fly infestation, look for small, fuzzy insects near sinks, bathtubs, or other moist areas.


Midges are tiny flies that live in swamps, marshes, and other wetlands. They have gray bodies and segmented antennae.

Midges feed on nectar and other plant juices. They are usually harmless, but their swarms can be a nuisance, especially during mating season.

To identify midges, look for clouds of tiny, gray flies buzzing around in the air.

Sand Flies

Sand flies are a type of biting gnat that feeds on the blood of reptiles and mammals, including humans. They have sandy-colored bodies and thick hairs.

Sand flies are common in tropical and subtropical regions, and they are most active during the evening and night. To identify sand flies, look for small, hairy insects on your skin that cause itching and skin irritation.

Gall Gnats

Gall gnats, also known as mosquito gnats or plant gall midges, are similar in appearance to mosquitoes. They are brightly colored, with iridescent wings and long legs.

Gall gnats feed on plant sap and can cause deformities in plant growth if they lay their eggs near or on the plant roots. To identify a gall gnat infestation, check for distorted or abnormal growth patterns in your plants.

Eye Gnats

Eye gnats, also called sand flies or biting midges, are attracted to the eyes, nose, and mouth of humans and animals. They are typically sandy-colored and short-lived.

Eye gnats are common in warm, humid environments and can be a nuisance in outdoor areas. To identify eye gnats, look for tiny, flying insects around your face, especially near the eyes.

Dark Winged Fungus Gnats

Dark winged fungus gnats (Sciaridae) are a type of fungus gnat that can be found in homes as well as outdoors in moist environments. They are small flies with slender bodies, long legs, and long antennae.

The eggs of fungus gnats are tiny, white, elongated objects found in moist soil. The larvae are legless, wormlike creatures that feed on fungus and decaying organic matter.

The pupal stage is a non-feeding stage in which the larvae transform into adult gnats, which emerge from the soil surface.

Infestation and Attraction

Fungus gnats are attracted to moist environments and organic materials. They can be found in potting mix, soil, sink drains, garbage cans, and houseplants.

They can become a problem when there are too many of them, and they start to damage plants or become a nuisance in the home. To prevent fungus gnat infestations, avoid over-watering plants and other areas where fungal growth is likely to occur.


Dark winged fungus gnats are common in outdoor environments, where they feed on decomposing organic matter and fungi. When the weather is warm and damp, they can reproduce rapidly, leading to a population explosion.

Fungus gnats can easily migrate indoors through open windows or doors or on houseplants.

Life Cycle

The life cycle of a fungus gnat begins with the adult gnats laying eggs in moist soil. The eggs hatch into legless larvae that feed on fungi and organic matter.

The larvae continue to feed for several weeks before entering the pupal stage. After a few days, adult gnats emerge from the pupae and start the cycle over again.

In conclusion, knowing how to identify different types of gnats is an important step in pest control. By understanding the behavior and habitats of these tiny insects, it is possible to prevent infestations and protect your home and garden.

Remember to keep your environment clean and dry, and avoid over-watering plants to minimize the risk of fungus gnat infestations. Fungus gnats can quickly become a problem in households with indoor plants, and they can be difficult to get rid of once infested.

However, there are several methods of eliminating fungus gnats and preventing future infestations. In this article, we will explore some of the best methods for controlling fungus gnats and provide information on the effects of fungus gnats on plants and on human health, as well as seeking professional assistance.

Isolating Plants

One way to prevent the spread of fungus gnats is to keep new plants separate from those that may be infected. When purchasing plants from a nursery or garden center, it is essential to inspect them for signs of gnat infestation before bringing them into your home.

If you suspect that a new plant may be carrying fungus gnats, it is advisable to keep it separate from your other plants for a few weeks to monitor the situation. Additionally, you can use the sliced potato method to determine if the soil is infested with fungus gnat larvae.

Place slices of potato on the surface of the soil and check them after a day or two. If fungus gnats are present, you will see their larvae feeding on the potato slices.

Soil Drying

Fungus gnats thrive in moist soil, so allowing the soil to dry out can be an effective method of controlling them. However, it is essential to ensure that the soil does not become too dry, as this can damage the plants.

Allow the soil to dry out between each watering, but do not over-dry the soil. The soil should be damp but not wet.


Insecticides are another option for controlling fungus gnats. One effective insecticide is pyrethrin, which is derived from chrysanthemum flowers.

However, care must be taken when using insecticides, as they can be harmful to humans and pets if not used correctly. Other insecticides that have been effective against fungus gnats include hydrogen peroxide, neem oil, pot poppers, and Dipel.

Always read the labels on insecticides and follow the instructions carefully.


Yellow sticky traps are effective at trapping adult fungus gnats. Place the traps near the plants where you have seen the most gnat activity.

Alternatively, you can make homemade traps using cinnamon, diatomaceous earth (DE), apple cider vinegar, or horticultural sand. Cinnamon can be sprinkled on the soil to deter larvae, and DE can be sprinkled on the soil to kill larvae.

Apple cider vinegar can be used as a trap to catch adult gnats, and horticultural sand can be used to line the top layer of soil to deter adult gnats from laying eggs.


Preventing future infestations of fungus gnats requires proper soil sterilization, composting, and potting soil maintenance. Sterilizing the soil can kill off any eggs or larvae that may be present before planting new plants.

Composting should be done in a designated bin away from the plants, and the potting soil should be regularly checked for signs of fungal growth. Additionally, natural soil cleaning methods such as solarization can be used to kill soil-borne pathogens.

Fungus Gnat Effects on Plants

Fungus gnat larvae feed on the roots of plants, causing damage and preventing the plant from absorbing nutrients. The plants may develop yellow leaves or become stunted in growth.

If left untreated, the damage can become severe, leading to plant death.

Harmlessness to Humans

Fortunately, fungus gnats are harmless to humans. They will not bite or sting but can be a nuisance when present in large numbers.

However, their presence can cause discomfort and should be addressed if infestations become severe.

Pest Control Professional

In severe cases, where home remedies and prevention methods have failed to eliminate the gnats, seeking the assistance of a pest control professional is advisable. The professional will inspect the property and determine the best approach to eliminate the gnats and prevent future infestations.

In conclusion, controlling and eliminating fungus gnats requires proper soil maintenance, drying of soil, isolation, and the use of insecticides or traps. The effects of fungus gnats can be devastating to plants if left untreated.

Fortunately, they are harmless to human health and can be dealt with using the methods described above. Remember, prevention is essential to keep fungus gnats from becoming a problem in the first place.

Sterilizing soil, proper composting, and natural soil cleaning methods can go a long way in eliminating fungus gnats and preventing future infestations. In conclusion, the article explored the various types of gnats, their identification, and control methods.

We learned about different gnats, such as fungus gnats, drain flies, midges, sand flies, gall gnats, and eye gnats, their appearances, and how they infest our environment. The article went on to provide practical ways to eliminate and prevent gnats, including isolation, drying the soil, the use of insecticides and traps, and natural soil cleaning methods.

Understanding how to control and eliminate gnats is essential in keeping our homes and gardens healthy and comfortable. The prevention measures are equally vital in ensuring that there are no future infestations.

With these practical tips, we can confidently take action in controlling and eliminating gnats when they come our way.

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